1. “APA Dictionary of Psychology.” Accessed December 7, 2021.
  2. Andreescu, T., Gallian, J. A., Kane, J., Mertz, J. E. “Cross-Cultural Analysis of Students with Exceptional Talent in Mathematical Problem Solving”. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 55 (2008):1248–1260.
  3. Association of American Medical Colleges. “Closing the Gender Pay Gap in Medicine.” Accessed November 4, 2021.
  4. Barinaga, Marcia. “Feminists Find Gender Everywhere In Science.” Science 260, no. 5106 (1993): 392–93.
  5. Bates, Carol, Lynn Gordon, Elizabeth Travis, Archana Chatterjee, Linda Chaudron, Barbara Fivush, Martha Gulati, et al. “Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers.” Academic Medicine 91, no. 8 (August 2016): 1050–52.
  6. Bleakley, Alan. “Gender Matters in Medical Education.” Advances in Medical Education, 111–26. Springer, Cham, 2013.
  7. Bhatt, Wasudha. “THE LITTLE BROWN WOMAN: Gender Discrimination in American Medicine.” Gender and Society 27, no. 5 (2013): 659–80. 
  8. Broyles, Philip. "The Gender Pay Gap of STEM Professions in the United States." International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 29, no. 5-6 (0, 2009): 214-226. doi:
  9. Brush, Stephen G. “Women in Science and Engineering.” American Scientist 79, no. 5 (1991): 404–19.
  10. Bureau, US Census. “Women Are Nearly Half of U.S. Workforce but Only 27% of STEM Workers.” Accessed December 8, 2021.
  11. Bütikofer, Aline, Sissel Jensen, and Kjell G. Salvanes. “The Role of Parenthood on the Gender Gap among Top Earners.” European Economic Review 109 (October 2018): 103–23.
  12. Carr, Martha, and Donna L. Jessup. “Gender Differences in First-Grade Mathematics Strategy Use: Social and Metacognitive Influences.” Journal of Educational Psychology 89, no. 2 (1997): 318–28.
  13. Carr, Martha, Donna L. Jessup, and Diana Fuller. “Gender Differences in First-Grade Mathematics Strategy Use: Parent and Teacher Contributions.” Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 30, no. 1 (1999): 20–46.
  14. Cardador, M. Teresa, and Brianna Barker Caza. 2018. “The Subtle Stressors Making Women Want to Leave Engineering.” Harvard Business Review, November 23, 2018.
  15. Carvajal, Manuel J, Graciela M Armayor, and Lisa Deziel. “Pharmacists’ Earnings Determinants: Differences by Ethnic Group.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research 4, no. 1 (March 1, 2013): 19–27.
  16. Ceci, Stephen J., Donna K. Ginther, Shulamit Kahn, and Wendy M. Williams. “Women in Academic Science: A Changing Landscape.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 15, no. 3 (December 2014): 75–141.
  17. Ceci, Stephen J., Wendy M. Williams, and Susan M. Barnett. “Women’s Underrepresentation in Science: Sociocultural and Biological Considerations.” Psychological Bulletin 135, no. 2 (March 2009): 218–61. doi:10.1037/a0014412.supp (Supplemental).
  18. Ceci, S. J., Williams, W. M. (2010a). “The Mathematics of Sex: How Biology and Society Conspire to Limit Talented Women and Girls.” New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  19. “Changing Perceptions: What Women Who Work in Engineering Want.” 2021. Buro Happold (blog). February 10, 2021.
  20. Committee on Maximizing the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering, Engineering Committee on Science, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Engineering, and National Academy of Sciences. Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press, 2007.
  21. Correll, Shelley J. “Gender and the Career Choice Process: The Role of Biased Self‐Assessments.” American Journal of Sociology 106, no. 6 (2001): 1691–1730.
  22. Courey, Gabriel, and John S. Heywood. “Gender Wage Gap Trends Among Information Science Workers*.” Social Science Quarterly 99, no. 5 (2018): 1805–20.
  23. Cvencek, Dario, Andrew N. Meltzoff, and Anthony G. Greenwald. “Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children: Gender Stereotypes.” Child Development 82, no. 3 (May 2011): 766–79.
  24. “Dissecting the Gender Pay Disparity Among C-Suite Executives.” n.d. Accessed December 7, 2021.
  25. Else-Quest, Nicole M., Janet Shibley Hyde, and Marcia C. Linn. . “Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis.” Psychological Bulletin 136 (1) (2010): 103–27. doi:10.1037/a0018053.
  26. “Few Women Reach Healthcare Leadership Roles.” Modern Healthcare, May 22, 2019.
  27. Guiso, L., F. Monte, P. Sapienza, and L. Zingales. “DIVERSITY: Culture, Gender, and Math.” Science 320, no. 5880 (May 30, 2008): 1164–65.
  28. Halpern, Diane F, Camilla P Benbow, David C Geary, Ruben C Gur, Janet Shibley Hyde, and Morton Ann Gernsbacher. “The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics.” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 8, no. 1 (2007): 1–51.
  29. “Healthcare Workforce Statistics.” 2019. 2019.
  30. HealthifyMe Blog. “Does Confidence Issues Stem from Your Childhood?,” April 13, 2021.
  31. Higginbotham, Eve J., Maria Lund Dahlberg, Engineering National Academies of Sciences, and Engineering National Academies of Sciences. The Impact of COVID-19 on the Careers of Women in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Consensus Study Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2021.
  32. “Human Capital — Why It Matters and 5 Tips to Improve It.” n.d. Accessed December 7, 2021.
  33. Independent. “Burden of Household Chores Still Falls to Women, CSO Survey Reveals.” Accessed December 4, 2021.
  34. Inke, Lillian V. Employment Opportunities for Women in Professional Engineering. Women’s Bureau Bulletin ; No. 254. Washington, D.C: United States Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 1954.
  35. Johns, Michael, Toni Schmader, and Andy Martens. “Knowing Is Half the Battle.” Psychological Science (0956-7976) 16, no. 3 (March 2005): 175–79. doi:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.00799.x.
  36. Justintimeprod. 2019. “Tips for Job Hunters in the Medical Field - Just in Time Staffing.” Just in Time Staffing. July 25, 2019.
  37. Kimball, Meredith M. “A New Perspective on Women’s Math Achievement.” Psychological Bulletin 105, no. 2 (March 1989): 198–214. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.105.2.198.
  38.  Legewie, Joscha, and Thomas A. DiPrete. “The High School Environment and the Gender Gap in Science and Engineering.” Sociology of Education 87, no. 4 (2014): 259–80.
  39.  Lu, Dave, Michelle Lall, Jennifer Mitzman, Sheryl Heron, Ava Pierce, Nicholas Hartman, Danielle McCarthy, Joshua Jauregui, and Tania Strout. “#MeToo in EM: A Multicenter Survey of Academic Emergency Medicine Faculty on Their Experiences with Gender Discrimination and Sexual Harassment.” WestJEM 21.2 March Issue 21, no. 2 (February 21, 2020): 252–60.
  40. "Ma, Yingyi. “Gender Differences in the Paths Leading to a STEM Baccalaureate.” Social Science Quarterly 92, no. 5 (2011): 1169–90.
  41. Marra, Rose M., Kelly A. Rodgers, Demei Shen, and Barbara Bogue. “Women Engineering Students and Self-Efficacy: A Multi-Year, Multi-Institution Study of Women Engineering Student Self-Efficacy.” Journal of Engineering Education (Washington, D.C.) 98, no. 1 (2009): 27–38.
  42. Margheri, Laura. 2015. “Raise the Visibility of Women in Engineering [Women in Engineering].” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 22 (1): 143–46.
  43. Meeting, In. 2019. “A Mixed Ethnic Group of Medical Professionals Is Sitting around A...” IStock. 2019.
  44. Moss-Racusin, Corinne A., John F. Dovidio, Victoria L. Brescoll, Mark J. Graham, and Jo Handelsman. “Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, no. 41 (2012): 16474–79. 
  45. “Organizational Context and Female Faculty’s Perception of the Climate for Women in Academic Medicine | Journal of Women’s Health.” Journal of Women’s Health, 2017.
  46. Quinlan, Casey 2019. “Bias in Medicine - an Untreated Epidemic - Patient Empowerment Network.” Patient Empowerment Network. August 23, 2019.
  47. Rayman, Paula M., and Julie Pearson Stewart. “Reaching for Success in Science: Women’s Uneven Journey.” Women’s Studies Quarterly 28, no. 1/2 (2000): 13–23.
  48. Rochon, Paula A., Frank Davidoff, and Wendy Levinson. “Women in Academic Medicine Leadership.” Academic Medicine 91, no. 8 (August 2016): 1053–56.
  49. Rogers, J. Jill, Marylin Lisowski, and Amy A. Rogers. “Girls, Robots, and Science Education.” Science Scope 29, no. 6 (2006): 62–63.
  50. Schiebinger, Londa. “The History and Philosophy of Women in Science: A Review Essay.” Signs 12, no. 2 (1987): 305–32.
  51. Shannon, Geordan, Melanie Jansen, Kate Williams, Carlos Cáceres, Angelica Motta, Aloyce Odhiambo, Alie Eleveld, and Jenevieve Mannell. “Gender Equality in Science, Medicine, and Global Health: Where Are We at and Why Does It Matter?” The Lancet 393, no. 10171 (February 2019): 560–69.
  52. Stahl, Ashley. “The Top 5 Growing Career Fields In 2022.” Forbes. Accessed December 8, 2021.
  53. Stanford Graduate School of Business. “What’s Behind the Pay Gap in STEM Jobs?” Accessed November 4, 2021.
  54. Sterling, Adina D., Marissa E. Thompson, Shiya Wang, Abisola Kusimo, Shannon Gilmartin, and Sheri Sheppard. "The Confidence Gap Predicts the Gender Pay Gap among STEM Graduates." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 117, no. 48 (Dec 01, 2020): 30303. doi:
  55. Subrahmanyan, Lalita, and Heath Bozonie. “Gender Equity in Middle School Science Teaching: Being ‘Equitable’ Should Be the Goal.” Middle School Journal 27, no. 5 (1996): 3–10.
  56. Takahashi, Ana Maria, Shingo Takahashi, and Thomas N. Maloney. “Gender Gaps in STEM in Japanese Academia: The Impact of Research Productivity, Outside Offers, and Home Life on Pay.” The Social Science Journal 55, no. 3 (September 1, 2018): 245–72.
  57. Tao, Yu. “Earnings of Academic Scientists and Engineers: Intersectionality of Gender and Race/Ethnicity Effects.” American Behavioral Scientist 62, no. 5 (May 1, 2018): 625–44.
  58. “The Engineering Gender Gap: It’s More than a Numbers Game.” n.d. University Affairs (blog). Accessed November 11, 2021.
  59. Wang, Jing and Morley Gunderson. "Can Pay Gaps between Gay Men and Lesbians Shed Light on male–female Pay Gaps?" International Journal of Manpower 40, no. 2 (2019): 178-189. doi:
  60. “What’s Holding Women in Medicine Back from Leadership.” Harvard Business Review, June 19, 2018.
  61. "Where Discoveries Begin." National Science Foundation. Accessed October 15, 2021.
  62. “Why Aren’t There More Women in Engineering?” 2021. Buro Happold (blog). June 29, 2021.
  63. “Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2021 | NSF - National Science Foundation.” Accessed December 8, 2021.
  64. “Women Underrepresented in Academic Hospital Medicine Leadership Roles, Study Finds.” Johns Hopkins Medicine Newsroom, June 25, 2020.
  65. Zhu, Xiaorui. 2013. “Future of Women in Engineering [Women in Engineering].” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 20 (2): 103–5.
Prev Next