Women's Representation in Leadership Roles in the NCAA
The adoption of Title IX has improved prospects for female university students and has had a significant effect on women in athletic leadership. It is often neglected that the introduction of Title IX had an impact not just on student-athletes, but also on administration members. Until the reform was introduced in 1972, 90% of women's teams were led by women, and currently, 40.2% of women's teams are coached by women . In turn, the passage of Title IX has contributed to the creation of even more barriers for women in athletic leadership. Since Title IX was passed and athletic departments merged leadership roles, women had to adjust and assimilate the conventional role of male figures or boost their standing by drastic efforts, referred to as super-performance . These efforts also allow for women to be acknowledged for their achievements, but create a disparity in the conventional quality of gender that is essential in the workplace.
Though changes have been made since 1972 there is a considerable amount of work to be done with the number of women in athletic leadership in order to establish an equitable balance in leadership roles. Departmental change needs to take place in order to recognize that women's leadership and power is respected, and a shift of understanding is expected to modify the way athletic managerial leadership is perceived and valued. One direction in which athletic management has promoted the role of women in athletics is by the position of a senior female administrator. Although their skills are equally successful, upon hiring there is a barrier blocking the distinct notion to hire a male for the male-dominated leadership model.
Men vs. Women in NCAA Head Coaching Postions
Women in head coaching positions for both male and female sports have actually declined since the enactment of Title IX. According to the graphs composed from the NCAA, head female coaches in the NCAA have steadily declined since 1996 . The graph also displays the lack of female head coaches in male sports. One reason for the low number of female coaches could be the legacy of derogatory views towards women in leadership positions in general and coaching roles in particular. A study conducted assessed the behaviors of college basketball players, both male and female, towards theoretical coaches . Both male and female hypothetical coaches were identified as having equal qualifications. Male athletes rated these female coaches more favorably than female athletes. Weinberg has assessed the attitudes of athletes towards male and female coaches. After reading the coaching theory statements, basketball players were asked to judge imaginary coaches. Both male and female athletes evaluated male coaches more favorably than female coaches, even though female coaches were identified as having improved coaching statistics and more distinctions than male coaches . Another reason Title IX created a decline in womens postions is because since Title IX was established, men have earned more coaching opportunities for women's sports. In 2015-2016, male coaches accounted for 59.8% of coaches in women's sports. Women on the other hand, have witnessed minimal growth in men's team leadership opportunities, retaining just 4.6 per cent of men's team head coaching positions .